Fellows 2013

Abrar Jaber (Palestine)Abrar

Raising Boys’ Achievement at UNRWA School in West Bank

This project is about raising boys’ achievement at the United Nations Relief Works Agency for Palestine Refugees (UNRWA) School in Nablus, Hebron and Jerusalem area. This project explores why boys achieve poorly in school and why there is a gap between boys and girls in the same subject areas, why are girls better than boys, what are the reasons, and how can we help the students? The analysis is based on statistic gathered by the UNRWA results in 2011/2012. There are many reasons for gender differences in education. We will now look at reasons for why girls improve more than boys in the UNRWA School. This can be divided up into external factors and internal factors. The external factors come from outside the education system, such as home and family background and wider society. The internal factors are within schools and the education system, such as the effect of school policies.
The project aims to raise the educational achievement of Palestinian boys in UNRWA schools. The focus of the project will be to undertake the interventions found and decided upon for the target groups in each school, but most likely interventions would be: the provision of strong incentives to improve attendance and ensure discussions on gender in education with a special focus on boys, inclusive education, learner-friendly environments, strengthening counselling and guidance, and facilitating an inter-sectorial approach to gender equality in education. If pursued, these activities will hopefully have a positive influence, ensuring that all children, boys and girls alike, can pursue their right to education. 



Alberto Cumbi (Mozambique)

Public Policies, Parenthood and Gender Equality

 This essay examines the role of public policies on parenthood in generating gender equality in Mozambique. The focus is on how these policies boost the equal participation of men and women in maternal and infant healthcare, as well as the sharing in childcare responsibilities between men and women given that the caregiving of children is seen as a woman´s responsibility. The analysis was based on the Model of Evaluation of Gender Integration in policies, developed by the Interagency Gender Working Group which recognizes that the intended results of policies can be affected by unequal gender roles when actions for tackling gender inequalities are not clearly defined.

The analysis found out that in general some public policies appropriate the global critical discourse on the importance of gender approaches, assuming gender equality and human rights as one of the principles in their design and implementation. Yet, these principles are not clearly reflected in strategies and activities to ensure equal participation of women and men in reproductive health and caregiving of children. The definition of actions that aims to tackle unequal gender norms accompanied by actions raising gender awareness should be seen as one way of boosting gender equality in domestic households. It could also increases gender equality in the labour market by preventing childcare from becoming a factor of disadvantage for women on the paid labour market. 



Chikondi Manyungwa (Malawi)

Improved Fish Smoking and Loss Reduction among the Lake Malawi Chikombe Fishing Community, Malawi. A Participatory Action Research Project

 Final assignment: Improved Fish Smoking and Loss Reduction among the Lake Malawi Chikombe Fishing Community, Malawi. A Participatory Action Research Project

This project focuses on improved fish processing and loss reduction among the Lake Malawi Chikombe fishing community. In Malawi the long term socio-economic implications of wastage in the post-harvest subsector of the fisheries involve a loss in income and nutritional benefits to the general population. Established methods of fish processing, especially smoking places great pressure on the valuable forest resources with deforestation and environmental degradation as an impact. There is concern over post-harvest losses in fish and fishery products in Malawi. Beyond financial setbacks for stakeholders, this problem has socio-economic implications for the wider community and women bear the brunt as they dominate the processing sub sector. This negative trend is likely to continue if action is not taken with appropriate technologies and adequate methods to preserve fish. The project intends to pilot the usage of fuel efficient smoking kilns to overcome the situation. The main goal is to reduce fish post-harvest losses by 15% in Chikombe fishing community. The methodology used is Participatory Action Research (PAR). The theoretical framework that underpins the project is the sustainable livelihoods framework. The project will use a gender-relational approach which aims at better benefit sharing generally, for both men and women. The expected outcome is reduced post-harvest fish losses and improved environmental and socio-economic conditions. 



Harriet Asibazuyo (Uganda)

Preventing Child Sexual Abuse Through Community Awareness Raising and Training. Northern Uganda: Districts of Kitgum and Pader

This project focuses on prevention of child sexual abuse (CSA) in Uganda. It will be implemented in the post-war districts of Kitgum and Pader, where police reports indicate at least 6 cases of CSA reported per day. Most victims are girls and perpetrators are mainly persons in authority or relatives. This high prevalence is attributed to the chaotic war environment in which the community lives where sexual abuse is rampant, abject poverty which results in forced marriages of the girl children in exchange for bride wealth and lack of collaboration of the local communities with the police hence cases of CSA are not reported and the few reported cases are abandoned for “out of court settlements”. This sexual abuse has a negative impact on girl children including trauma, high school dropout, early marriages, high incidences of domestic violence and HIV/AIDS. The goal of the project is to end CSA through grassroots mobilization and sensitization of the communities. This shall be achieved through sensitization meetings with the local communities on dangers of CSA, dialogue meetings with the local leaders for advocacy, development of information, communication and education materials for prevention of CSA in schools and training of community development officers and the police on handling and investigating cases of CSA. This five years project will be implemented by Ministry of Gender, Labour and Social Development. 



Nidal Al-Farajin (Palestine)

Images of Men and Women: an Analysis of the Context of Civic Education Textbooks in Occupied Palestinian Territoriesajin (Palestine)


Final assignment: Images of Men and Women: an Analysis of the Context of Civic Education Textbooks in Occupied Palestinian Territories (Palestine)
The study investigates image of women in Civic Education textbooks in Palestine and the extent to which certain gender outnumbers the other gender in some different aspects (image in Palestinian family, educational and learning process, political participation and job image distribution). The study was conducted in the semester 2013. The civic education textbooks series from grades seven to nine served as the corpus of the study. The researcher used main instrument to conduct the study using the content analysis approach.
The study focused on answering the following question: What gender roles are promoted in civic education textbooks, and how is gender presented in civic education textbooks in preparatory school curriculum for grades seven to nine? In light of the results, this study recommends the following:
- Distribute gender roles in a balanced way among subjects in civic textbooks particularly in the social, cultural, political subjects so women take part instead of being confined to certain subjects.
- The research recommends paying more interest to equal representation of both genders in texts, photos, activities and jobs. Text books authors should rely on the real society culture in dealing with such issues. 



Sandra Chilengue (Mozambique)

Reflections on Policies of Gender and Food Security in Mozambique´s Rural Arid Areas.  Machanga, District, Sofala

Numerous people who live in arid rural areas are vulnerable to food insecurities due to droughts, which have increased because of climate change. The argument presented here is that the social impact of climate change is not homogenous, as men and women are affected differently. Women are affected because they depend directly on agriculture; when crops do not grow women are vulnerable to extreme poverty. In addition, households headed by women face great problems because women are less educated, have more domestic responsibilities and are more involved in unpaid work, compared to men.

The essay addresses the gaps in policies and why the Food Subsidy Programme and cash transfer projects have not been successful. This analysis was done by reviewing literature and reviewing policy documents. The conclusion is that the Food Subsidy Programme and cash transfers are good in emergencies but need to be complemented by a sustainable skills-building programme, involving both men and women. Finally, recommendations include that the government must focus on programmes that involve both women and men in technological support in agriculture in rural arid areas.



Swizeen Ndyabawe (Uganda)

Prevention of Domestic Violence against Women in Kabale District, Western Uganda

 This three year project will be implemented in Kabale district, western Uganda where domestic violence against women is a major problem. Domestic violence against women in Kabale is accelerated by cultural briefs and people‘s attitudes towards domestic violence, bride price/dowry and inadequate institutional capacity especially by government departments like the police, local council courts and community based services department. The goal of the project is to diminish domestic violence against women in the district. This will be achieved through raising awareness among women and men on women’s rights to be free from domestic violence, community mobilization and engaging local leaders in order to abandon cultural norms and practices that promote domestic violence against women and strengthening the institutional capacity of police, local council courts and community based services department to provide legal and psychosocial support to the victims of domestic violence. It will ensure that there is collaboration among different duty bearers i.e. courts of law, police and the social development workers in order to eliminate all forms of domestic violence. The project will focus on increasing access to justice, counselling services and information by victims of domestic violence and it will also bring men on board in the fight against domestic violence by emphasizing behavioural change since in most cases they are the perpetrators. 



Thandiwe Bwanamdoko (Malawi)

How Access and Control over Financial Resources Between Men and Women Affects Development in Salima District in Malawi

Formal microfinance institutions are mostly found in urban areas. As an alternative to this village banks, known as village Group Savings and Loan Groups (GSLAs groups), are sustainable and low-cost options. This research paper specifically aims at assessing how access and control over financial resources between men and women affects development in the rural communities in Malawi with a specific focus GSLAs.
Where women have set up enterprises this has often led to small increases in access to income at the cost of heavier workloads and repayment pressures. In many cases the loans have been used by men to set up enterprises over which women have little control.
The methodology that has been used in this paper is background research where a review was done on different documents including the Malawi Lake Basin Program document. The study has established that Gender disparities exist in areas such as the law, education, agriculture, health, employment, credit accessibility, and political participation. These disparities produce gendered inequalities in the division of power, participation and control over resources and decision-making processes. It is recommended that women be part of the forums in which decisions are taken that impact the distribution of economic and financial resources.